Mid-20th Century

  • African American Artists During the 20th Century

    African American Artists During the 20th Century

    Horace Pippin was born in 1888. His grandparents had been slaves. His parents were poor. As a little boy, Horace liked to draw but his parents didn’t have money for art materials. When he was 10, Horace won a box of crayons in a contest. When he was 14, he left…


  • The Freedom Riders

    The Freedom Riders

    After Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the bus, laws were passed that said that whites and blacks could ride together on any bus traveling through more than one state. But throughout the South, this practice was still not allowed. So white volunteers began riding with black…


  • Ruby Bridges

    Ruby Bridges

    Ruby Bridges was born during a time when black children and white children couldn’t go to school together. The law said schools for these children should be separate, but equal. But that’s not what happened. Schools for white children were almost always equipped with better supplies, better books, and better…


  • Jackie Robinson

    Jackie Robinson

    From gang member to world-famous baseball player, Jackie Robinson helped break down barriers for African American athletes, proving that they can not only compete, but excel, in a variety of sports. Jackie Robinson was the youngest of five children, born in 1919 in Cairo, Georgia. His father left the family…


  • African American Inventors

    African American Inventors

    They say necessity is the mother of invention; if that’s true, it’s no wonder African Americans have created so many useful products designed to make work easier or to save money. Fun Facts African Americans who were slaves often came up with ideas to make their work more efficient. They…


  • African Americans in World War II

    African Americans in World War II

    After the first world war, many African Americans migrated to the north, but some stayed in the south. They got jobs or farmed their own land. Their white neighbors didn’t always like them, especially if their crops were more successful. But World War II came, bringing change again. Fun Facts…


  • Rosa Parks

    Rosa Parks

    Rosa Parks stood up for herself at a time when no one else would. Her courage started a movement that led to greater equality for African Americans. Fun Facts Rosa Parks was born February 4, 1913 in Tuskegee, Alabama. Her parents separated when she was two years old. She and her…


  • Communism in Asia and Elsewhere

    Communism in Asia and Elsewhere

    The Soviet Union wasn’t the only country promoting communism. Since the late 1920s, Communist leader Mao Tse-tung had been trying to gain control of China from the Nationalist government led by Chiang Kai-shek. The two sides formed a truce during World War II to fight against the Japanese, but as…


  • The Cold War

    The Cold War

    During World War II, the Soviet Union allied with Britain, France, and the U.S. After the war, though, that relationship soured. Communist leader, Joseph Stalin refused to remove troops from European countries previously occupied by the Germans. Instead, he took over those countries, establishing Communist governments in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary,…


  • The Candy Bomber

    The Candy Bomber

    During and after World War II, many people tried to ease the suffering of others, sometimes at the risk of their own lives. One such person was Gail Halvorsen. Born in Salt Lake City, Utah and raised on small farms in Utah and Idaho, Halvorsen became a pilot during World…